Volcanic activity is one of the most important events in Mars. Volcanic evolution also changed the geography of Mars. Since Mariner 9 in 1972, people are following active volcanic movement in Mars. It’s known that biggest and largest volcanoes and volcanic areas of universe are on the Mars. Researches showed that Mars is living with volcanic activity since 500 million years ago. How many volcanoes are there in Mars?
Especially Mars’ western hemisphere is a dominated volcanic area. It’s known as Tharsis volcanic province. This province is 25% of all Mars surface. Province also has biggest volcanoes of Mars like Ascraeus Mons, Arsia Mons and Pavonis Mons. Area took its last main shape on 3.7 billion years ago. There are 35 known big volcanoes in Mars.
Ascraeus Mons is the tallest volcano in the Tharsis Montes of Mars.It’s 18,209 meters. It’s discovered by Mariner 9 in 1971. Ascraeus Mons became always an active mountain in Mars’ history and always shaped Mars geography.
Olympus Mons is the highest mountain in Mars and tallest mountain on any planet in the Solar System with 21,171 meters. It’s growth in Mars’s Amazonian Period. The Mariner 9 took first photos from Olympus Mons in 1971. The Mariner 9 went there on a big sand storm but succeed to take photos.
Arsia Mons is the 3rd biggest volcano in Mars. It’s 17,779 meters. There are lots of caves in Arsia Mons. It’s believed that caves are occurred after collapse of lava tube ceilings. Some scientists claimed that caves are possible places for Martian life because they can save surface from night and day temperature changes like caves in world but then it’s declined because of extreme altitude European Space Agency probe Mars Express made an 3d map of Arsia Mons in 2004.
Pavonis Mons volcano is 4th biggest volcano of Mars. It’s 17,779 meters. It’s discovered by Mariner 9 in 1971. Volcano is on the middle of Tharsis Montes. After research and photos, scientists believe that there was bulk ice in the Pavonis Mons volcano area and it’s still possible to find more. Pavonis Mons bulk ice possibility is reviewing a chance about future life in Mars.
Elysium Mons is calculated as 13,862 meters. It’s located in Elysium Planitia of Mars. Mariner 9 discovered Elysium Mons in 1972. It’s compared to Chad’s Emi Koussi volcano and they are accepting as counterparts.
Tharsis Tholus’ first name was Volcano 7. The International Astronomical Union changes its name to Tharsis Tholus in 1973. Scientists announced that Tharsis Tholus formed 3.82 billion years ago. It was the late Noachian Period of Mars. Tharsis Tholus is known as one of the most active volcanoes in Mars surface today and it will be more active in close future.
Anseris Mons is an isolated mountain located in Hellas Planitia of Mars. After researches, scientists accept that it’s not a volcano, it’s a crustal block. Anseris Mons lost its height because of erosion and sand storms. Some scientists claimed that Anseris Mons formed 4.1 billion years ago.
Alba Mons is a low-lying volcano in Mars surface. Its name was Alba Patera but then the International Astronomical Union changed it to Alba Mons. Mariner 9 discovered Alba Mons in 1972. Eruption area on Alba Mons is calcuted to form on 400 million years. Nasa send research tools to there on Viking program. Viking 1 and Viking 2 photographed it.
Aeolis Mons is on the Gale Crater and Curiosity went to this area in 2012. A first photo Curiosity has sent to world was its own shade and Aeolis Mons. Mountain is close to 5,500 meters.