The American Civil War or Civil War with its common name is in 1861-1865. Some historians call this war as “War Between the States.” War started after eleven southern slave states announced that they unite in “the Confederacy” and finished secession from the United States. The other 25 states were stayed in federal government and they called as “Union.” War is mainly continued in Southern states. War finished after slavery states were surrendered and slavery was abolished. After war, Reconstruction Era started in USA and it solved most of problems but some problems stayed unsolved. How many people died in American Civil War?
First clashed started in April 12, 1861 when Confederate forces entered into U.S. military base in South Carolina. President Lincoln wanted a volunteer army from each state and set abolishing the slavery as a war goal.
In 1862, Union started to gain control on important points like Mississippi River. Battle of Shiloh and Siege of Vicksburg split Confederacy area into two parts. Confederate tried to defend important points like Petersburg and Atlanta but couldn’t achieve it.
The Civil War became the deadliest war in American History. 750,000 soldiers died and many of soldiers disappeared. According to historians, ten percent of all Northern males died in this war and it was 30 percent of all southern males.
There are various reasons of war. But main reason is economical. Southeast state’s economy was mostly on agricultural. They were producing cotton, tobacco and molasses. There were big ranches and farmers were using slaves who were coming from Africa. But north countries were mostly industrialized and they need free workforce so they didn’t want slavery.
It was a common belief that new government after 1860 will abolish slavery. It was a big threat for slavery based lifestyle of south. Before 1860 election, Abraham Lincoln announced that he will abolish slavery if he wins. While election date is coming, northern states started to create a new federation. After Abraham Lincoln won the election, they didn’t wait for any announcement on slavery and they announced that seven states Louisiana, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and Texas finished secession from USA. Then Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee joined them.
After war, slavery is abolished and all slaves gained right to vote. South’s lifestyle over agricultural aspect is totally changed. Wealth of south and north was nearly balanced before war but after war, north became rich while north became poorer than ever.
Today it’s possible to see lots of monuments, statues, collections and books about the Civil War in the United States. Especially newspapers mostly interfere to Civil War events when a new discussion starts. School books include various articles against racism and slavery in 1800s’ America.
Hollywood made lots of popular movies about The Civil War. Some of them are Gone with the Wind, The Birth of a Nation, Dances with Wolves, Gods and Generals and The Good The Bad and The Ugly.
After war, Reconstruction Era started in United States of America. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson designed some rules and laws to take south into normal in a shorter period than expected but there were Radical Republicans in the Congress and they tried to block these efforts. After some political events, southern states started to set a free labor economy but also violence over white and black voters raised. According to some historians, Reconstruction era is totally failure. Especially Blacks faced various problems on this era. Lots of groups started to attack police and government offices. Era also produced some new systems in USA like share-cropping.