History divides to two as prehistory and recorded history eras. It’s not possible to know the definite information about prehistory ages because ancient history starts with developing of writing. Human’s history is still continuing and a new age may start very soon. Some people accept found of internet as a start of new age but it’s not official now. History eras start with Cuneiform script found in Jemdet Nasr. Today we are living in Modern history. Historians accept that after Cold war, world entered “Contemporary” period of Modern history. How many history eras are there?
There are three history eras in the world. They are Ancient history, Middle Ages and Modern history. Ancient history has periods as Earliest records, Near East, Africa, Classical antiquity, East Asia, South Asia and Early Americas. Earliest records are first writings. They were mostly on wall with their unique alphabet. They firstly started with symbols and then evaluated to aphabets. Near East is accepting as “Cradle of civilization”. Discoveries like writing, agriculture, potter’s wheel and law codes started from this era. Also social items like slavery and organized warfare beside mathematics and astronomy started in East Asia period. Also there were new civilization steps in East Asia, Africa and South Asia. Pre-Columbian era started migration to America continent.
Ancient history lasted since collapse of the Western Roman Empire by Barbarian Invasion. Historians divide Middle Age to three as the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages and the Late Middle Ages. Early Middle Ages started with barbarian invasions. Invasions created new kingdoms in Europe. Also Islamic forces conquered Africa and Middle East. After 1000s, High Middle Age started. Main reasons caused this period’s start were agricultural innovations and technological development allowed Europeans to grow crop yields and flourish. They also started to trade them. Feudalism started on social life because landlords need labor for fields. Europeans conquered Middle East in 1100s and recaptured Holy Land. First universities were started to develop and Gothic cathedrals were built as an artistic achievement. But while Europe is growing faster in every stage, people faced plague and war. Late Middle Age started with the Black Death’s appearance in Europe. A third of the European population died because of the Black Death. Also Church’s decisions and commands created civil wars and controversies.
Late Middle Age lasted since French Revolution. Some historians accept end of Last Middle Age as Industrial Revolution also. There are three period of Modern History as Early modern, Modern and Contemporary. Modern history started in 1453 by Fall of Constantinople. After conquer, the Americas discovered by firstly Amerigo Vespucci and then Christopher Columbus in 1492. Also Protestant Reformation of Martin Luther in 1517 is an important event of Modern History. Early Modern History continued with Age of Reason and Age of Enlightenment and lasted by Industrial Revolution of 18th century.
Modern period of Modern History started with usage scientific methods and science on all stages of life. The European Renaissance started in Italy and influenced whole world.
After technological developments and discoveries on shipping and sailing, Imperialism started. Nationalism and militarism arise in countries and all nations started to set their countries. World saw two World Wars in Modern History. The World War II started on 1914 and finished on 1918. The World War II started on 1939 and finished on 1945. World saw Holocaust and use of nuclear weapons in warfare. World War II resulted with over 70 million fatalities. There are some historians believe that internet’s discovery is the starting point of future era but it’s not an official opinion still.