The Cuban missile crisis or October Crisis with its common name is one of the biggest political crises in the last century. Earth came close to World War 3. It was the Cold War era and US was making operations against Cuban Regime. Some of the unsuccessful operations in this period are Operation Mongoose and Bay of Pigs. After unsuccessful operations, Soviet and Cuban governments decided to build bases in Cuba for intermediate-range and medium-range ballistic nuclear missiles. It would make possible to strike all continental United States with this missiles from Cuban. A United States Air Force U-2 plane captured all bases in Cuba with nuclear missiles and events went to a big crisis. How many days Cuban Missile Crisis lasted?
Cuban Missile Crisis lasted for 13 days. There were deep conflicts between Russia and USA after unsuccessful Bay of Pigs Invasion. John F. Kennedy and Cuban exiles invaded Bay of Pigs in 1961 but they failed and this event embarrassed USA government publicly. Some writers foreseen that Russia will take a step after this fail to get stronger and save Cuba.
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev taught that USA is taking advantage of “splendid first strike” against Russia and he decided to put missiles to Cuba. Russia started to help Cuba economy. Most important step in this help was sugar export of Cuba. Russia bought a big part of Cuba’s export even it doesn’t need it.
Russia put lots of missiles to Cuba and turned their target to USA. Also USA turned the target of its missiles in Turkey and Italy to Russia. It was the first time world was so close to Nuclear War and according to some political think-tanks nuclear war will heat 100 million Americans and 100 million Russians first and then all earth.
According to important political writers, Nikita Khrushchev didn’t place missiles to Cuba for hitting USA but he thought to take some concessions and guarantees from USA for withdrawing missiles. Some of the guarantees he would want were an agreement that USA will not invade Cuba and they will withdraw missiles in Turkey.
All the events in 1961 and 62 forced the USA to attack Cuba. Some politicians decide to attack Cuba in parliament but then Kennedy changed it to a military blockade on Cuba. USA government announced that any missiles will be permitted to enter Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev wrote a letter to President John F. Kennedy and said blockage is propelling Russia to world nuclear-missile war.
According to history writers, Russia and USA made aggressive announcements but they searched an agreement in back channels and at last they signed an agreement in October 28, 1962. According to agreement, Russia will dismantle their missiles and took them back to Russia and never mantle them again, USA will never invade Cuba and also dismantle the missiles in Turkey and Italy.
Two weeks after the agreement, Russia started to dismantle all weapons in Cuba and loaded them to ships. Also the Soviet Il-28 bombers were loaded to ships and went back to Russia. USA finished Cuba blockade in November 20, 1962 officially. Also USA deactivated it’s all American Thor missiles in 11 months.
Cuba’s leader Fidel Castro falls out with Nikita Khrushchev because Khrushchev didn’t ask to Fidel Castro about situations and agreement in the crisis period. After Cuban Missile Crisis finished, Russia and USA started to search ways of working together and interactions between two countries rarely came so strict again. Moscow–Washington hotline is created between two countries after crisis and leaders talked on this phone when a problem occurs.